Acid

Hi I am freshly squeezed from a lemon! I am lemonade

Do I

taste sour? Yes!

Conduct electricity? Yes!

react with metals, bases, and carbonates? Yes!

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The baking soda (a base) and the lemon juice (an acid) combine to release Carbon Dioxide gas. The liquid soap turns the bubbles into a foam that often erupts right out of the glass.

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So I am lemon juice, and I am ACIDIC!

An acid can do all 3 things mentioned above!

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An acid has pH less than 7!

Rain, wine et-cetera et-cetera all contain different acids! Rain’s acidity comes from dissolved carbon dioxide, while wine’s acidity comes from fermented grapes!

They all have pH below 7, so what is pH?

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pH measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in something!

What are hydrogen ions?

First let us see what all acids have in common!

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They all have H in them!

When in water, the H splits apart from the acid to become H+ ions! They left their electrons behind with their acid pal to form a negatively charged ion.

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Why do you need water to be present to have H+ ions?

Because water has the ability to attract the H from the acid to split from the acid!

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the hydronium (H3O+) here is the same as H+!

H+ ions are the big deal that makes acids who they are!

hydrogen_ion

If you are an acid, you will react with metals, and other stuff… and that is all because your H+ ions are attacking those guys!!!

reactions_of_hydrogen_ion

H+ makes an acid incredibly powerful

A really powerful acid releases all the H immediately to form lots and lots of H+ ions when it dissolves in water.

strong_acid

Whereas a weak acid does not release all of its H to form H+ ions, it may hold on to its H! 🙂

weak acid

Compare the 2 pictures above, can you see that there are more H+ ions per unit volume for strong acids compared to weak acids?

This means that strong acids have a higher concentration of H+ ions than weak acids.

Recall that pH measures amount of H+?

pH

Can you see that a strong acid contains a really large amount of H+ ions?

This explains why chemists need to take precautions when working with strong acids!

source:

http://www.sciencebob.com/blog/?tag=lemon-juice

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